Towards the net zero carbon future: A review of blockchain‐enabled peer‐to‐peer carbon trading

Towards the net zero carbon future A review of blockchain‐enabled peer‐to‐peer carbon trading

Abstract: The increasing trend of energy generation and management systems towards decentralized structures such as using renewable energy resources makes it necessary to use digital and smart platforms for exchanging information and even conducting financial transactions in a decentralized manner, known as the peer‐to‐peer model. The decentralized transaction verification of cryptocurrencies makes it possible to use these encrypted currencies and decentralized blockchain networks in energy management systems and carry out financial transactions related to carbon trading. Carbon and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trading systems reduce the competitiveness of fossil fuel projects in the market and accelerate investment in low‐carbon energy sources such as wind and photovoltaic power generation units. This market mechanism allows large entities such as countries and companies that emit GHGs into the atmosphere to buy and sell these gases. This paper reviews the blockchain solutions developed for carbon markets. Studies related to the design of smart contracts in the platform of blockchain are investigated. Special cryptocurrencies that are used in the field of green energy transactions and carbon trading are introduced. In addition, the application of artificial intelligence and game theory in energy trading is stated. The study of different blockchain frameworks for carbon trading shows that the use of decentralized platforms in carbon trading can have a significant impact on the trend towards low‐carbon measures and achieving the goals of the Kyoto Treaty, increasing the value of green cryptocurrencies and the volume of transactions. These technologies offer a promising avenue for creating a more decentralized, efficient, and environmentally conscious energy ecosystem.

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